South Eresian statives, transformatives, locatives and verbs of motion

I was going to talk about this in a post with the rest of the derivational morphology, but I am currently posed to do a complete overhaul of the rest of the derivational system.  This post will thus deal with stative verbs, transformative verbs, locative verbs and verbs of motion, which are interrelated systems.

STATIVE VERBS:

First of all, it is helpful to think of every content word in South Eresian as being, at its core, a verb, with the (fairly variant) nominalizer suffix appended if it is a noun:

nán- to be a person, to be human

nánac
/ˈnan-k/
person-2PP.ABS
“You are all human”

nán
/ˈnan-Ø/
person-NOMZ
“person”

Atlátzy- to be the sun goddess

Atlátziye
/aˈt͡ɬat͡sj-e/
sun_goddess-1PS.ABS
“I am the sun goddess”

Atlátzi
/aˈt͡ɬat͡sj-Ø/
sun_goddess-NOMZ
“sun goddess”

sícuatl- to be a musical instrument

sícuatlal
/ˈsikʷ-at͡ɬ-l/
play_music-TOOL-INAN.ABS
“It is a musical instrument”

And so on.  This is pretty simple and straightforward; I won’t go into how this works with transitive verbs, because that’s about to get overhauled and it isn’t really important here.

TRANSFORMATIVE VERBS:

There are two basic transformative derivational suffixes; -tz and -xm.

The suffix -tz is inserted on verb stems to change them from being stative to expressing the concept of beginning or becoming:

Atlátzitze
/aˈt͡ɬat͡sj-t͡s-e/
sun_goddess-BEGIN-1PS.ABS
“I become the sun goddess”

síuctza
/ˈsikʷ-t͡s-Ø/
play_music-BEGIN-3PS.ABS
“He/she started playing music”

Similarly, -xm is inserted on verb stems to change them from being stative to expressing the concept of finishing or stopping being something:

sícoxmeha
/ˈsikʷ-ʃm-ʔa/
play_music-FINISH-SIT
“The music stopped playing”

huéquilirixmex
/ˈwekilj-irj-ʃm-ʃ/
corn_liquor-CREATE-FINISH-1PP.ABS
“We stop making corn liquor”

nánaxmat
/ˈnan-ʃm-t/
person-FINISH-2PS.ABS
“You are no longer human”

Cáxmequexmanac
/ˈkaʃmek-ʃm-an-k/
You all stop being Cáxmecans.

These suffixes can be combined, although that’s kind of an odd thing to do:

huéquilirixmetz
/ˈwekilj-irj-ʃm-t͡s-Ø/
corn_liquor-CREATE-FINISH-BEGIN-3PS.ABS
“He/she begins to stop making corn liquor.”

Síuctzexme
/ˈsikʷ-t͡s-ʃm-e/
play_music-BEGIN-FINISH-1PS.ABS
I stop beginning to play music.

LOCATIVE VERBS:

Things get a bit wonky here.  There are fifteen locative suffixes; twelve of them are best thought of as being in binary pairs.  These should be thought of as verbalizers being applied after the nominalizer morpheme is applied, describing something in the context of their relation to the noun.  I’ll use óxt-  “house” for all my examples here, since it’s pretty all-purpose.

-cui / -aps : inside/outside

óxtecuiye
/ˈoʃt-Ø-kʷi-e/
house-NOMZ-INSIDE.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am inside the house”

óxtapse
/ˈoʃt-Ø-aps-e/
house-NOMZ-OUTSIDE.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am outside the house”

-met / -qos : touching/not touching

óxtemete
/ˈoʃt-Ø-met-e/
house-NOMZ-TOUCHING.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am in physical contact with the house.”

óxteqose
/ˈoʃt-Ø-qos-e/
house-NOMZ-NOT_TOUCHING.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am not in physical contact with the house.”

-tle / -cot : above/below

óxtetle
/ˈoʃt-Ø-t͡ɬe-e/
house-NOMZ-ABOVE.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am above/on top of the house”

óxtecote
/ˈoʃt-Ø-kot-e/
house-NOMZ-BELOW.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am below the house”

-lch / -orim : left/right

óxtelche
/ˈoʃt-Ø-lt͡ʃ-e/
house-NOMZ-LEFT.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am to the left of the house”

óxtorime
/ˈoʃt-Ø-oɾim-e/
house-NOMZ-LEFT.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am to the right of the house”

-elm / -qs : front/back

óxtelme
/ˈoʃt-Ø-elm-e/
house-NOMZ-FRONT.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am in front of the house”

óxteqse
/ˈoʃt-Ø-qs-e/
house-NOMZ-BACK.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am in back of the house”

-ajr / -ni : far/near

óxtajre
/ˈoʃt-Ø-axɾ-e/
house-NOMZ-FAR.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am far from the house”

óxteniye
/ˈoʃt-Ø-ni-e/
house-NOMZ-NEAR.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am near the house”

-lt : side

óxtelte
/ˈoʃt-Ø-lt-e/
house-NOMZ-SIDE.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am beside/next to the house”

-mix : surrounding, about

óxtemixen nanán
/ˈoʃt-Ø-miʃ-n ~ˈnan-Ø/
house-NOMZ-SURROUNDING-3PP.ABS PL-person-NOMZ
“There are people surrounding/scattered about the house”

-excar : through

óxtexcaral tálma
/ˈoʃt-Ø-eʃkaɾ-l ˈtalm-Ø/
house-NOMZ-THROUGH-INAN.ABS tree-NOMZ
“A tree is through the house”

These suffixes can combine, in sometimes-impressive displays of alternating nominalization and verbalization, like so:

óxtecuiyorime
/ˈoʃt-Ø-kʷi-Ø-oɾim-e/
house-NOMZ-INSIDE.VBZ-NOMZ-RIGHT.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am inside the house, to the right”

óxtetlemete
/ˈoʃt-Ø-t͡ɬe-Ø-met-e/
house-NOMZ-ABOVE.VBZ-NOMZ-TOUCHING.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am on top of the house”

óxtorimelmecoteqose
/ˈoʃt-Ø-oɾim-Ø-elm-Ø-kot-Ø-qos-e/
house-NOMZ-RIGHT.VBZ-NOMZ-FRONT.VBZ-NOMZ-BELOW.VBZ-NOMZ-NOT_TOUCHING.VBZ-1PS.ABS
“I am below the front of the right of the house.

VERBS OF MOTION:

As is probably surmisable, transformative suffixes may combine with locative verbs to form verbs of motion.  These come after the locative suffixes.

óxtajraxme
/ˈoʃt-Ø-axɾ-ʃm-e/
house-NOMZ-FAR-FINISH-1PS.ABS
“I stop being far from the house”

yétlapacuitze
/ˈje-t͡ɬap-Ø-kʷi-t͡s-e/
god-PLACE-NOMZ-INSIDE-BEGIN-1PS.ABS
“I go into the temple”

This is pretty straightforward and easy once you understand the locative system.

LOCATION DESCRIPTION:

A question arises when you try to use these verbs, however: how do you describe the location within a locative verb or verb of motion, when it is incorporated like so?

This kind of gets into syntax, which I haven’t really written about here yet, but whatever (I really don’t know where to start in describing the syntax even though it’s not super complex, derp).

The most unmarked strategy is to use a dummy locative noun á with the locative and transformative suffixes and append it as a relative clause to the uninflected noun:

xólel ha ácuitze cuá ya óxta
/ˈʃol-l ʔa ˈa-Ø-kʷi-t͡s-e ˈkʷa ja ˈoʃt-Ø/
blue-INAN.ABS NOM EXPL-NOMZ-INSIDE-BEGIN-1PS.ABS LOC REL house-NOMZ
“The house that I go into is blue”

And the inverse…

ácuitze cua xólel ya óxta
/ˈa-Ø-kʷi-t͡s-e ˈkʷa ˈʃol-l ja ˈoʃt-Ø/
EXPL-NOMZ-INSIDE-BEGIN-1PS.ABS LOC blue-INAN.ABS REL house-NOMZ
“I go into the blue house”

The second strategy takes advantage of the subject-dropping capabilities of the language; it basically uses the verb in a relative clause with a null antecedent (although you could definitely consider the antecedent to be the thing adding stress to the relativizer):

xólel ha óxtacuitze cuá yá
/ˈʃol-l ʔa ˈoʃt-Ø-kʷi-t͡s-e ˈkʷa ˈja/
blue-INAN.ABS NOM house-NOMZ-INSIDE-BEGIN-1PS.ABS LOC REL
“The house that I go into is blue”

And the inverse:

óxtacuitze cua xólel yá
/ˈʃol-l ʔa ˈoʃt-Ø-kʷi-t͡s-e ˈkʷa ˈja/
house-NOMZ-INSIDE-BEGIN-1PS.ABS LOC blue-INAN.ABS REL
“I go into the blue house”

The final strategy is formal, somewhat archaic and redundant (the location is specified twice!), which means it’s not used often in general speech.  It can be thought of as a mix of the other two strategies, or the other two strategies can be thought of a redux of it.

xólel ha óxtacuitze cuá ya óxta
/ˈʃol-l ʔa ˈoʃt-Ø-kʷi-t͡s-e ˈkʷa ˈja/
blue-INAN.ABS NOM house-NOMZ-INSIDE-BEGIN-1PS.ABS LOC REL house-NOMZ
“The house that I go into is blue”

And the inverse:

óxtacuitze cua xólel ya óxta
/ˈʃol-l ʔa ˈoʃt-Ø-kʷi-t͡s-e ˈkʷa ˈja/
house-NOMZ-INSIDE-BEGIN-1PS.ABS LOC blue-INAN.ABS REL house-NOMZ
“I go into the blue house”

I think that’s it.  I realize that this is kind of a weird system, so I’ll be happy to answer any questions about how it works!

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